5 Perbedaan Antara Ekonomi Mikro dan Makro Dalam Ilmu Manajemen | Anyabila

5 Perbedaan Antara Ekonomi Mikro dan Makro Dalam Ilmu Manajemen

Ekonomi mikro adalah studi tentang kecenderungan ekonomi, atau apa yang mungkin terjadi ketika individu atau perusahaan membuat pilihan tertentu tentang bagaimana alokasi sumber daya atau ketika faktor-faktor produksi berubah. Pelaku ekonomi mikro sering terbagi ke dalam subkelompok seperti pembeli, penjual, dan pemilik bisnis. Kelompok-kelompok ini menciptakan penawaran dan permintaan akan sumber daya. Lalu apa perbedaan antara ekonomi mikro dan makro ? sebelum itu, mari kita mengenal apa itu ekonomi mikro.

Penggunaan Ekonomi Mikro

Ekonomi mikro tidak menjelaskan apa yang terjadi di pasar. Akan tetapi, hanya menjelaskan apa yang terjadi jika kondisi tertentu berubah. Jika perusahaan menaikkan harga mobil, ekonomi mikro menyatakan pelanggan akan cenderung membeli lebih sedikit dari sebelumnya.

Jika sebuah tambang tembaga besar runtuh, harga tembaga akan cenderung meningkat karena pasokan terbatas. Ekonomi mikro dapat membantu investor memahami mengapa harga saham Apple Inc. mungkin turun jika konsumen membeli lebih sedikit iPhone.

Ekonomi mikro juga dapat menjelaskan mengapa upah minimum yang lebih tinggi mungkin memaksa Perusahaan untuk mempekerjakan lebih sedikit pekerja. Hal ini dapat menjawab pertanyaan-pertanyaan seperti ini yang mungkin memiliki implikasi yang sangat luas bagi perekonomian.

Ekonomi Mikro Penggunaan, Metode dan Konsep

Metode Yang digunakan

Ekonomi neoklasik berfokus pada bagaimana konsumen dan produsen membuat pilihan rasional untuk memaksimalkan kesejahteraan ekonomi mereka, fokus pada batasan berapa banyak pendapatan dan sumber daya yang mereka miliki.

Ekonom neoklasik membuat asumsi tentang pasar untuk membangun model matematika perilaku ekonomi.

Kemudian, metode metode ini berusaha untuk mewakili perilaku manusia dalam bahasa matematika fungsional, yang memungkinkan para ekonom untuk mengembangkan model pasar individual yang teruji secara matematis.

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Para neoklasik percaya dalam membangun hipotesis terukur tentang peristiwa ekonomi, kemudian menggunakan bukti empiris untuk melihat hipotesis mana yang paling berhasil. Tidak seperti fisikawan atau ahli biologi, ekonom tidak dapat menjalankan tes berulang, sehingga penelitian empiris mereka bergantung pada pengumpulan dan pengamatan data ekonomi dari pasar dunia nyata. Sehingga, efisiensi ekonomi pasar berdasarkan seberapa baik pasar riil mematuhi aturan-aturan model.

Konsep Dasar Mikroekonomi

Studi ini melibatkan beberapa konsep utama, termasuk didalamnya:

1. Teori produksi

Konsep ini mengenai proses mengubah input menjadi output. Yang mana produsen berusaha untuk memilih kombinasi input dan metode penggabungan mereka yang akan meminimalkan biaya untuk memaksimalkan keuntungan mereka.

2. Teori utilitas

Berhubungan dengan teori produksi, konsumen akan memilih untuk membeli dan mengkonsumsi kombinasi barang yang akan memaksimalkan kebahagiaan atau “utilitas” mereka, bergantung pada batasan berapa banyak pendapatan yang mereka miliki untuk dibelanjakan.

3. Teori harga

Teori produksi dan teori utilitas berinteraksi untuk menghasilkan teori penawaran dan permintaan, yang menentukan harga di pasar yang kompetitif. Sehingga, dalam pasar persaingan sempurna, disimpulkan bahwa harga yang diminta oleh konsumen adalah sama dengan yang disediakan oleh produsen. Itu menghasilkan keseimbangan ekonomi.

4. Organisasi industri dan struktur pasar

Para ekonom mempelajari banyak cara agar pasar dapat disusun, dari persaingan sempurna hingga monopoli, cara-cara produksi dan harga akan berkembang di berbagai jenis pasar ini.

Baca juga:
1. Pemasaran lingkungan makro dan mikro
2. Analisa PESTEL untuk pasar ekternal (makro)
3. Mengenal pasar dalam perekonomian

Perbedaan Antara Ekonomi Mikro dan Makro

  1. Perbedaan utama adalah ekonomi mikro pada segmen kecil dan makro pada keseluruhan segmen ekonomi.
  2. Ekonomi mikro bekerja berdasarkan prinsip bahwa pasar dapat dengan cepat menciptakan keseimbangan. Dalam ekonomi makro, ekonomi mungkin berada dalam kondisi ketidakseimbangan untuk periode yang lebih lama.
  3. Ekonomi makro lebih menekankan pada data empiris dan mencoba menjelaskannya. Ekonomi mikro cenderung bekerja berdasarkan teori terlebih dahulu – meskipun ini tidak selalu terjadi.
  4. Dalam ekonomi makro berupaya menemukan perspektif umum, di tingkat nasional, sementara ekonomi mikro berfokus pada perspektif individu, di tingkat konsumen.
  5. Ekonomi mikro berdasarkan pada tren pembeli dan penjual, dimana ekonomi makro berfokus pada berbagai siklus ekonomi, seperti siklus utang jangka pendek dan jangka panjang, dan siklus bisnis.
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