Pendekatan Kardinal dan Ordinal Dalam Perilaku Konsumen | Anyabila

Pendekatan Kardinal dan Ordinal Dalam Perilaku Konsumen

Dalam dunia bisnis dan marketing, demi mendapatkan hasil yang sangat baik seorang pemasar perlu mengetahui alasan mengapa konsumen mau membeli produk tersebut. Atau seberapa besar daya guna dari produk/ jasa dapat memberikan kepuasan terhadap konsumen. Pengukur nilai kepuasan konsumen terhadap daya guna terbagi menjadi dua dalam ilmu perilaku konsumen, yaitu pendekatan kardinal dan ordinal.

Dalam artikel ini kita akan membaha mengenai apa itu pendekatan kardinal dan ordinal dalam perilaku konsumen.

Pendekatan Ordinal dan Kardinal

Daya guna dari suatu produk atau jasa akan berdampak pada tingkat kepuasaan konsumen. Tentunya, kepuasan ini akan berbeda tiap individunya. Pengukuran nilai daya guna terbagi menjadi dua ilmu teori yaitu ordinal dan kardinal.

Pendekatan Kardinal

Pendekatan Kardinal adalah pengukuran kepuasan terhadap produk atau jasa yang mereka telah gunakan dan dapat diukur berdasarkan angka pasti. Sehingga pengukuran dapat dinilai dari nilai 0 hingga 100.

Pendekatan kardinal ini bersifat kualitatif dengan satuan util.

Namun dalam prakteknya, penilaian ini akan cenderung tidak realistik karena angka pengukuran tidak mungkin tepat.

Alasan tersebut karena pengukuran nilai ini akan terpengaruhi faktor individu seperti mood, ketertarikan, dan banyak hal lainnya.

Sehingga metode pendekatan ini mulai ditinggalkan oleh para ahli marketing.

Pendekatan ini dapat diukur menggunakan kurva marginal utility, pendekatan satuan utilitas dalam menilai kepuasan seseorang dalam mengonsumsi barang dan jasa.

Dalam kurva marginal utility yang berdasarkan hukum gossen, awal mula nilai kepuasan akan naik sampai dengan titik jenuh kemudian mulai menurun hingga mati.

pendekatan kardinal dan ordinal perilaku konsumen
Gambar 1. Kurva marginal utility

Jika konsumen mendapatkan kepuasan yang tinggi, maka konsumen akan rela membayar lebih. Jika tidak, maka berlaku sebaliknya.

Baca Juga:  Pemasaran Langsung : Manfaat, Faktor, Jenis, Dan Cara Pengukuran

Pendekatan Ordinal

Pendekatan ordinal adalah teori yang mengungkapkan bahwa kepuasan konsumen yang telah menggunakan produk atau jasa tidak dapat diukur secara angka numerik atau angka pasti. Teori pendekatan ordinal dikemukakan oleh pakar ekonomi modern yaitu J.R. Hicks dan R.G.D. Allen.

Artinya, daya guna merupakan fenomena psikologi, yang tidak bisa kita ukur berdasarkan metode kuantitatif.

Akan tetapi, pada prinsip ini, konsumen tetap dapat mengekspresikan bahwa mereka merasa puas akan produk atau jasa tersebut setelah membandingkannya dengan produk lain sejenis.

Sehingga metode pendekatan ordinal bersifat kualitatif dengan satuan berdasarkan tingkat kepuasan dengan pengukuran berdasarkan kurva indifferens.

Kurva indifferens adalah kurva yang dapat menunjukkan kombinasi jumlah barang atau jasa yang telah konsumen konsumsi yang dapat menghasilkan tingkat kepuasan.

Konsumen akan mengurangi tingkat komsumsi barang jika ia menambah barang lain untuk dikonsumsi.

kurva indifferent pada pendekatan ordinal perilaku konsumen
Gambar 2. Kurva indifferens. Sumber: Intelegent economist

Perbedaan Antara Pendekatan Kardinal dan Ordinal

Kamu harusnya sudah bisa membedakan antara pendekatan kardinal dan ordinal. Akan tetapi, kami rangkumnya kembali untuk memudahkan kamu.

Berikut perbedaan antara pendekatan kardinal dan ordinal, yaitu:

  1. Pendekatan kardinal bersifat kuantitatif, sedangkan pendekatan ordinal bersifat kaulitatif.
  2. Pendekatan kardinal mengukur secara objektif, sedangkan pendekatan ordinal secara subjektif.
  3. Metode pendekatan kardinal cenderung tidak realistis karena mengukur daya guna secara kuantitatif tidak mungkin tepat, sedangkan ordinal lebih realistis karena mengukur dari segi kualitatif.
  4. Pendekatan kardinal mengukur berdasarkan daya guna, sedangkan pendekatan kardinal mengukur berdasarkan peringkat pada preferensi produk.

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