Menghitung Pertumbuhan Ekonomi: Faktor, Cara dan Pengukuran | Anyabila

Menghitung Pertumbuhan Ekonomi: Faktor, Cara dan Pengukuran

Pertumbuhan ekonomi menciptakan lebih banyak keuntungan untuk bisnis. Akibatnya, harga saham naik. Hal itu memberikan perusahaan modal untuk berinvestasi dan mempekerjakan lebih banyak karyawan. Ketika lebih banyak pekerjaan, maka pendapatan meningkat. Konsumen memiliki lebih banyak uang untuk membeli produk dan layanan tambahan. Kemudian, bagaimana cara kita menghitung pertumbuhan ekonomi ?

Artikel ini akan membahas bagaimana cara kamu menghitung pertumbuhan ekonomi suatu negara.

Pengertian Pertumbuhan Ekonomi

Pertumbuhan ekonomi adalah peningkatan dalam produksi barang dan jasa selama periode tertentu. Pertumbuhan ekonomi agregat diukur dalam produk nasional bruto (GNP) atau produk domestik bruto (PDB). Untuk mengetahui cara menghitung pertumbuhan ekonomi maka kita perlu mengetahui faktor yang mempengaruhinya dan rumus pertumbuhan ekonomi tersebut, yang mana kita akan bahas.

Pembelian mendorong pertumbuhan ekonomi yang lebih tinggi. Karena alasan ini, semua negara menginginkan pertumbuhan ekonomi yang positif. Ini menjadikan pertumbuhan ekonomi sebagai indikator ekonomi yang paling banyak terpakai. Secara sederhana, pertumbuhan ekonomi mengacu pada peningkatan produksi agregat dalam suatu ekonomi.

Seringkali, keuntungan agregat dalam produksi berkorelasi dengan peningkatan produktivitas marginal rata-rata. hal tersebut mengarah pada peningkatan pendapatan, memberikan pelanggan kemampuan untuk meningkatkan daya beli yang berarti peningkatan kualitas hidup (secara materil) lebih tinggi dari standar minimun.

Dalam ekonomi, pertumbuhan umumnya tergambarkan sebagai fungsi modal fisik, modal manusia, tenaga kerja, dan teknologi. Sederhananya, meningkatkan kuantitas atau kualitas populasi usia kerja, peningkatan kualitas alat/mesin, dan kemampuan setiap individu yang nantinya mengarah pada peningkatan hasil ekonomi.

Baca Juga:  Perbedaan Pembangunan dan Pertumbuhan Ekonomi Nasional

Faktor Pertumbuhan Ekonomi Negara

1. Peningkatan Jumlah Barang Modal Fisik Dalam Perekonomian

Menambahkan modal ke ekonomi cenderung meningkatkan produktivitas tenaga kerja. Alat yang lebih baru, lebih baik, dan lebih banyak berarti pekerja dapat menghasilkan lebih banyak output per periode waktu. Sebagai contoh sederhana, seorang nelayan dengan jaring akan menangkap lebih banyak ikan per jam daripada seorang nelayan dengan tongkat runcing.

Namun dua hal penting untuk proses ini.

Seseorang dalam perekonomian harus terlebih dahulu terlibat dalam beberapa bentuk tabungan (mengorbankan konsumsi mereka saat ini) untuk membebaskan sumber daya untuk menciptakan modal baru, dan modal baru harus jenis yang tepat, di tempat yang tepat, pada waktu yang tepat bagi pekerja untuk benar-benar menggunakannya secara produktif.

2. Peningkatan Teknologi

Teknologi yang mengalami peningkatan memungkinkan pekerja untuk menghasilkan lebih banyak output dengan stok barang modal yang sama, dengan menggabungkan mereka dengan cara-cara baru yang lebih produktif.

Seperti halnya pertumbuhan modal, tingkat pertumbuhan teknis sangat tergantung pada tingkat tabungan dan investasi, karena tabungan dan investasi perlu untuk terlibat dalam penelitian dan pengembangan.

Contohnya adalah penemuan bahan bakar bensin; sebelum penemuan tenaga pembangkit energi bensin, nilai ekonomi minyak bumi relatif rendah. Penggunaan bensin menjadi metode transportasi barang yang lebih baik dan lebih produktif dalam proses dan mendistribusikan barang jadi secara lebih efisien.

3. Pertumbuhan Angkatan Kerja

Lebih banyak pekerja menghasilkan lebih banyak barang dan jasa ekonomis. Selama abad ke-19, sebagian dari pertumbuhan ekonomi AS yang kuat adalah karena masuknya tenaga kerja imigran yang murah dan produktif.

4. Peningkatan SDM

Hal ini berarti pekerja menjadi lebih terampil dalam kerajinan tangan mereka, meningkatkan produktivitas mereka melalui pelatihan keterampilan. Tabungan, investasi, dan spesialisasi adalah metode yang paling konsisten dan mudah terkendali.

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Sumber daya manusia dalam konteks ini juga dapat merujuk pada modal sosial dan kelembagaan.

Kecenderungan perilaku menuju kepercayaan sosial yang lebih tinggi dan timbal balik dan inovasi politik atau ekonomi seperti perlindungan yang mengalami peningkatan untuk hak-hak properti pada dasarnya adalah jenis-jenis modal manusia yang dapat meningkatkan produktivitas ekonomi.

Baca juga:
1. Lingkungan pemasaran makro dan mikro
2. Mengenal pasar dalam perekonomian

Bagaimana Menghitung Pertumbuhan Ekonomi

rumus menghitung pertumbuhan ekonomi

Produk domestik bruto (PDB) adalah cara terbaik untuk mengukur pertumbuhan ekonomi. Ini memperhitungkan seluruh output ekonomi negara. PDB mencakup semua barang dan jasa yang diproduksi oleh bisnis di negara ini untuk dijual. Tidak masalah apakah mereka terjual di dalam negeri atau di luar negeri.

Sebagian besar negara mengukur pertumbuhan ekonomi setiap kuartal.

Pengukuran pertumbuhan yang paling akurat adalah PDB riil. Ini menghilangkan efek inflasi. Tingkat pertumbuhan PDB menggunakan PDB riil.

Bank Dunia menggunakan pendapatan nasional bruto untuk mengukur pertumbuhan. Ini termasuk pendapatan devisa dari orang yang bekerja di luar negeri.

Rumus menghitung pertumbuhan ekonomi sebagai berikut:

R(t-1, t) = (PDBt – PDBt-1)/PDBt-1 x 100%

R = Tingkat pertumbuhan ekonomi dalam persentase (%)
PDBt = PDB riil pada tahun t
PDBt-1 = DB riil pada tahun t sebelumnya

Contoh menghitung pertumbuhan ekonomi sebagai berikut:

TahunPDB Riil dalam triliun rupiah
2019Rp15.833,9
2018Rp14.837,4
Contoh menggunakan data PDB Rill Indonesia

Dengan data PDB rill diatas, hitunglah tingkat pertumbuhan ekonomi pada tahun 2019

Maka pertumbuhan ekonomi 2019 sebagai berikut:

R(t-1, t) = (PDBt – PDBt-1)/PDBt-1 x 100%

R(t-1,t) = (15.833,9 – 14.837,4)/14.837,4 x 100%

Tingkat Pertumbuhan Ekonomi Indonesia tahun 2019 = 6,7%

Dalam Menghitung Pertumbuhan Ekonomi Ukurlah dalam Dolar atau Rupiah, Bukan Barang dan Layanan

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Ekonomi yang tumbuh atau lebih produktif menghasilkan lebih banyak barang dan menyediakan lebih banyak layanan daripada sebelumnya. Namun, beberapa barang dan jasa dianggap lebih berharga daripada yang lain. Misalnya, smartphone dianggap lebih berharga daripada tas. Pertumbuhan harus diukur dalam nilai barang dan jasa, bukan hanya kuantitasnya.

Masalahnya tidak semua individu menempatkan nilai yang sama pada barang dan layanan yang sama. Pemanas lebih berharga bagi penduduk yang tinggal didaerah yang dingin, sedangkan AC lebih berharga bagi penduduk yang tinggal didaerah panas. Karena nilai bersifat subjektif, pengukuran untuk semua individu sangat rumit.

Sehingga nilai ini diukur dengan menggunakan nilai pasar saat ini seperti dollar atau rupiah.

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